Electronic Journal of Human Sexuality, Volume 9, Nov. 23, 2006


Power and Love: Sadomasochistic Practices in Long-Term Committed Relationships


Alison, L., Santtila, P., Sandnabba, N. K. & Nordling, N. (2001) Sadomasochistically oriented behavior: Diversity in practice and meaning. Archives of Sexual Behavior, 30 (1), 1-13.

American Psychiatric Association (1980). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders, 3 rd Ed. Washington, D.C: American Psychiatric Association.

American Psychiatric Association (1994). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders, 4th Ed. Washington, D.C: American Psychiatric Association.

Anderssen, N. (2002). Does contact with lesbians and gays lead to friendlier attitudes? A two year longitudinal study. Journal of Community and Applied Social Psychology, 12, 124-136.

Appleby, P. R. (2001). Predictors of homosexism. Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B: The Sciences and Engineering, 61 (9 B) 5050.

Bar-On, B.A. (1982). Feminism and sadomasochism: Self-critical notes. In Against sadomasochism: A radical feminist analysis. San Francisco: Frog in the Well.

Baumeister, R.F. (1988). Masochism as escape from self. Journal of Sex Research, 25, 28-59.

Baumeister, R.F. (1989). Masochism and the Self. Hilldale, N.J.: Lawrence Erlbaum & Associates Inc.

Baumeister, R.F. (1995). An inside look at SM. Psychology Today, Vol.28 (Nov./Dec.), 47.

Bertholf , S.D. (1999). Understanding changes in student’s attitudes: A study of an undergraduate course in human sexuality. Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B: The Sciences and Engineering, 59 (10 B) 5569.

Bonds, J. & Nicks, S. (1999). Sex by age difference in couples applying for marriage. Psychological Reports 84, 42-44.

Breslow, N., Evans, L., & Langley, J. (1985). On the prevalence and roles of females in the sadomasochistic subculture: Report of an empirical study. Archives of Sexual Behavior, 14, 303-317.

Breslow, N., Evans, L., & Langley, J. (1986). Comparison among heterosexual, bisexual and homosexual male sadomasochists. Journal of Homosexuality, 13 (1), 83-107.

Breslow, N. (1989). Sources of confusion in the study and treatment of sadomasochism. Journal of Social Behavior and Personality, 4, 263-274.

Brown, N. & Amatea, E. (2000). Love and Intimate Relationships. Philadelphia, P.A.: Brunner/Mazel.

Butcher, D. (1999). Mapping the shadow in the work of de Sade and Sacher-Masoch: Constellating sociological and psychological possibilities. Dissertation Abstracts International: Section A: Humanities & Social Sciences, 59 (12-A), June, 4532.

Brothers, D. (1997). The leather princess: Sadomasochism as the rescripting of trauma. Conversations in self psychology, 245-268. Hillsdale, NJ: The Analytic Press.

Califia, P. (1979). Lesbian sexuality. Journal of Homosexuality, 4, 255-266.

Califa, P. (1983). A secret side of lesbian sexuality. In T. Weinberg & G. Kamel (Eds.), S and M: Studies in sadomasochism (pp. 129-136). Buffalo, N.Y.: Prometheus.

Celenza, A. (2000). Sadomasochistic relating: What’s sex got to do with it? Psychoanalytic Quarterly, 69, 3, 527-543.

Cowan, G. (1992). Feminist attitudes toward pornography control. Psychology of women Quarterly, 16, 165-177.

Crepault, E. & Couture, M. (1980). Men’s erotic fantasies. Archives of Sexual Behavior, 9. 565-581.

Cross, P. (1998). Understanding sadomasochism: An examination of current perspectives. (Doctoral dissertation, Carleton University, 1998). Dissertation Abstracts International, Oct.1998.

Dietz, P.E. & Evan, B. (1982). Pornographic imagery and prevalence of paraphilia. American Journal of Psychiatry, 139. 1493-1495.

Donnelly, D.; and Fraser, J. (1998). Gender differences in sado-masochistic arousal among college students. Sex Roles, 39, 391-407.

Dougherty, N. (1987). Female masochism: Perspectives for social workers. Clinical Social Work Journal, 15 (1), 22-34.

Ellis, H. (1936). Love and Pain: Studies in the Psychology of Sex. New York, Random House.

Ernulf, K.E. & Innala, S. (1995). Sexual bondage: a review and unobtrusive investigation. Archives of Sexual Behavior, 24, 631-54.

Eve, R. A. & Renslow, D. G. (1980). An exploratory analysis of private sexual behaviors among college students: Some implications for a theory of class differences in sexual behavior. Social Behavior and Personality, 8, 97-105.

Ford, S.C. & Beach, F.A. (1951). Patterns of Sexual Behavior. Scranton, Pennsylvania: Random House.

Frazier, M. & Haberman, H. (2001). Out of the Darkness: The Reality of SM [Educational Video]. State: Broadcast Company.

Freud, S. (1900). The interpretation of dreams. The Standard Edition of the Complete Psychological Works, 4 and 5. London: Hogarth Press, 1953

Freud, S. (1919). A Child is Being Beaten: A Contribution to the Origin of the Study of Sexual Perversions. The standard edition of the complete works of Sigmund Freud (vol. 17, pp.175-204). London, Hogarth Press.

Freud, S. (1924/1961). The economic problem of masochism. In J. Stracheys (Ed. And Transl.). The standard edition of the complete works of Sigmund Freud (vol. 19, pp.159-170). London, Hogarth Press.

Freud, S. (1930). Civilization and its Discontents. The Standard Edition of the Complete Psychological Works, 4 and 5. London: Hogarth Press, 1953

Gebhard, P. (1976). Fetishism and Sadomasochism. Sex Research. Ed. M. Weinberg. New York: Oxford University Press.

Gosselin, C.C.; Wilson, G.D.; and Barrett, P.T. (1991). The personality and sexual preferences of sadomasochistic women. Personality and Individual Differences, 12, 11-15.

Greene, B. (2000). Beyond heterosexualism and across the cultural divide: Developing an inclusive lesbian, gay, and bisexual psychology: A look to the future. Education, research, and practice in lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgendered psychology: A resource manual,5,1-45.

Hamilton , G.V. (1929). A research in marriage. New York: Boni.

Herdt, G. (2001). Social change, sexual diversity, and tolerance for bisexuality in the United States. Lesbian, gay, and bisexual identities and youth: Psychological perspectives, 267-283.

Hicks, T. & Leitenberg, H. (2001). Sexual fantasies about one’s partner versus someone else: Gender differences in incidence and frequency. Journal of Sex Research, 38, 43-50.

Hillman, J. & Ventura, M. (1992). We’ve had a Hundred Years of Psychotherapy and the World is Getting Worse. Harper Collins, New York.

Houlberg, R. (1991). The magazine of a sadomasochism club: The tie that binds. Journal of Homosexuality, 21, 167-183.

Hunt, M.M. (1974). Sexual behavior in the 1970s. Chicago: Playboy Press.

Jenks, R. (1998). Swinging: A review of the literature. Archieves of Sexual Behavior, 27 (5), 507-521.

Kamel, G.W.L. (1980). Leathersex: Meaningful aspects of gay sadomasochism. Deviant Behavior, 1, 171-191.

Kaplan, H.S. (1987). The Illustrated Manual of Sex Therapy. New York: Brunner/Mazel.

Kinsey, A.C., et al. (1953). Sexual Behavior in the Human Female. Philadelphia: W.B.Saunders.

Krafft-Ebing, R. von (1965). Psychopathia Sexualis, transl. Franklin S. Klaf. New York: Stein and Day. (Original Work published in 1886).

Lawrence, K. & Byers, E.S. (1992). Development of the interpersonal exchange model of sexual satisfaction in long-term relationships. Canadian Journal of Human Sexuality, 1(3), 123-128.

Levitt, E. ; Moser, C. ; Jamison, K. (1994). The prevalence and some attributes of females in the sadomasochistic subculture: a second report. Archives of Sexual Behavior, Aug., Vol.23, 465-73.

Lewis, R. & Adler, K. (1994). Come to me baby or what’s wrong with lesbian sm. Women’s Studies International Forum, 17 (4), 433-441.

Loewenstein, R.M. (1957). A contribution to the psychoanalytic theory of masochism. Journal of American Psychoanalytic Association, 5, 197-234.

Love, P. (1999). Creating passion and intimacy. Philadelphia: Brunner/Mazel.

Matteson, D. (1999). Intimate bisexual couples. The intimate couple, 439-459.

McCary, J. (1973). Human Sexuality (2 nd ed.). New York: Van Norstrand Reinhold Company.

Merriam, S. (1998). Qualitative Research and Case Study Applications in Education. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.

Miles, M.B. & Huberman, A.M. (1994). Qualitative Data Analysis: An Expanded Sourcebook. (2 nd ed.). Thousand Oaks, Calif.: Sage.

Moser, C. (1988). Sadomasochism. Journal of Social Work and Human Sexuality, 7 (1), 43-54.

Moser, C. (1999). Health care without shame: A Handbook for the Sexually Diverse and Their Caregivers. San Francisco. Greenery Press.

Moser, C. (2001). Paraphilia: A critique of a confused concept. New Directions in Sex Therapy, Chapter Five. Philadelphia: Brunner-Routledge.

Moser, C. & Levitt, E.E. (1987). An exploratory-descriptive study of a sadomasochistically-oriented sample. Journal of Sex Research, 23 (3), 322-337.

Newman, B. (1997). The use of online services to encourage exploration of ego-dystonic sexual interests. Journal of Sex Education and Therapy, 22 (1), 45-48.

Oser, R. (1997). The interaction of sex and sex role orientation on the content of sexual fantasies. Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B: The Sciences and Engineering, 57 (10B), 6586.

Panter, A. (1999). An exploratory study of female sadomasochists’ sexuality: Behavior, fantasy, and meaning. Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B: The Sciences & Engineering, 60, Oct (4-B), 1867.

Queen, C. (1996). Women, sadomasochism and therapy. Women and Therapy, 19 (4), 65-73.

Rubin, R. (2001). Alternative lifestyles revisited, or whatever happened to swingers, group marriages, and communes? Journal of Family Issues, 22, 711-726.

Sacher-Masoch, L. (1996). Venus in Furs. New York: Penguin.

Sade, Marquis de (1966). 120 Days of Sodom and Other Writings. Translated and compiled by A. Wainhouse and R. Seaver. New York: Grove.

Sakalli, N. (2002). Application of the attribution-value model of prejudice to homosexuality. Journal of Social Psychology, 142, 264-271.

Sandnabba, N.K.; Santtila, P.; Alison, L.; Nordling, N. (2002). Demographics, sexual behaviour, family background and abuse experiences of practitioners of sadomasochistic sex: a review of recent research. Sexual and Relationship Therapy, 17, 1, 39-55.

Santtila, P.; Sandnabba, N.K.; Nordling, N. (1999). Sexual behavior and social adaptation among sadomasochistically-oriented males. The Journal of Sex Research, 36, 3, 273-82.

Santtila, P.; Sandnabba, N.K.; Nordling, N. (2000). The prevalence and effects of self-reported childhood sexual abuse among sadomasochistically oriented males and females. Journal of Child Sexual Abuse: 9 (1), 53-63.

Santtila, Pekka; Sandnabba, N. Kenneth; Nordling, Niklas (2000). Retrospective perspectives of family interactions in childhood as correlates of current sexual adaptation among sadomasochistic males. Journal of Psychology & Human Sexuality, Special Issue: 12 , 4, 69-87.

Santtila, P.; Sandnabba, N.K.; Alison, L. & Nordling, N. (2002). Investigating the underlying structure in sadomasochistically-oriented behaviour: evidence for partially-ordered scales. Archives of Sexual Behavior, 31, 2, 185-196.

Simoni, J. (2000). Confronting heterosexism in the teaching of psychology. Education, research, and practice in lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgendered psychology: A resource manual,5, 74-90.

Spengler, A. (1977). Manifest sadomasochism of males: Results of an empirical study. Archives of Sexual Behavior, 6, 441-456.

Stein, M. (1975). Lovers, friends and slaves. New York: Berkeley.

Stoller, Robert, J. (1991) Pain and Passion: A Psychoanalyst Explores the World of SM. NY: Plenum Press.

Van Naerssen, A.X.; van Dijk, M.; Hoogeveen, Geert; Visser, Dick & van Zessen, Gertjan. (1987). Gay S/M in pornography and reality. Journal of Homosexuality, 13, 111-199.

Weiss, R. (1994). Learning from Strangers: The Art and Method of Qualitative Interview Studies. New York: The Free Press.

Weinberg, T.S. (1987). Sadomasochism in the United States: A review of recent sociological literature. Journal of Sex Research, 23, 50-69.

Weinberg, T.S.; Williams, C.J. & Moser, C. (1984). The social constituents of sadomasochism. Social Problems, 31, 379-389.

Weinberg, T. S. (1994) Research in sadomasochism: A review of sociological and social psychological literature. Annual Review of Sex Research, 5 , 257-277.

Wilnier, J. (1999). Women’s attitudes towards sexually explicit materials: Positive experiences. Dissertation Abstracts Internationals, Section A, Humanities and Social Sciences, 59, 3988.

Wilson, G. (1997). Gender differences in sexual fantasies: An evolutionary analysis. Personality and Individual Differences, 22, 27-31.

Yarab, P. & Allgeier, E. (1998). Don’t even think about it: The role of sexual fantasies as perceived unfaithfulness in heterosexual dating relationships. Journal of Sex Education and Therapy, 23, 246-254.

Return to Front Page